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福建师范大学18年8月课程考试《高级英语阅读(一)》作业考核试题
《高级英语阅读(一)》期末考核题
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I翻译以下句子:(出自教材《高级英语阅读一》第48页,第4课TextA)
  Allstresspositiveornegativestimulatesabasicbiologicalreactioncalledfightorflight.Thisisahormonallystimulatedstateofarousalthatpreparesyoutofacewhateverchallengeisathandbeityourdaughtersweddingajobinterviewanargumentwithyourspouseortheassaultofawouldbemugger.
IIReadLesson9,TextA“ShootinganElephant”(教材第125127页),answerthefollowingquestions
ShootinganElephant
ByGeorgeOrwell
  Onedaysomethinghappenedwhichinaroundaboutwaywasenlightening.ItwasatinyincidentinitselfbutitgavemeabetterglimpsethanIhadhadbeforeoftherealnatureofimperialism—therealmotivesforwhichdespoticgovernmentsact.EarlyonemorningthesubinspectoratapolicestationontheotherendoftownrangmeuponthephoneandsaidthatanelephantwasravagingthebazaarWouldIpleasecomeanddosomethingaboutit?IdidnotknowwhatIcoulddobutIwantedtoseewhatwashappeningandIgotonaponyandstartedout.Itookmyrifleanold.44WinchesterandmuchtoosmalltokillanelephantbutIthoughtthenoisemightbeusefulinterrorem.VariousBurmansstoppedmeonthewayandtoldmeabouttheelephantsdoingsitwasnotofcourseawildelephantbutatameonewhichhadgone&quotmust.&quotIthadbeenchainedupastameelephantsalwaysarewhentheirattackof&quotmust&quotisduebutonthepreviousnightithadbrokenitschainandescaped.Itsmahouttheonlypersonwhocouldmanageitwhenitwasinthatstatehadsetoutinpursuitbuthadtakenthewrongdirectionandwasnowtwelvehoursjourneyawayandinthemorningtheelephanthadsuddenlyreappearedinthetown.TheBurmesepopulationhadnoweaponsandwerequitehelplessagainstit.Ithadalreadydestroyedsomebodysbamboohutkilledacowandraidedsomefruitstallsanddevouredthestockalsoithadmetthemunicipalrubbishvanandwhenthedriverjumpedoutandtooktohisheelshadturnedthevanoverandinflictedviolenceuponit.
  TheBurmesesubinspectorandsomeIndianconstableswerewaitingformeinthequarterwheretheelephanthadbeenseen.Itwasaverypoorquarteralabyrinthofsqualidbamboohutsthatchedwithpalmleafwindingalloverasteephillside.Irememberthatitwasacloudystuffymorningatthebeginningoftherains...Therewasaloudscandalizedcryof&quotGoawaychild!Goawaythisinstant!&quotandanoldwomanwithaswitchinherhandcameroundthecornerofahutviolentlyshooingawayacrowdofnakedchildren.Somemorewomenfollowedclickingtheirtonguesandexclaimingevidentlytherewassomethingthatthechildrenoughtnottohaveseen.Iroundedthehutandsawamansdeadbodysprawlinginthemud.HewasanIndianablackDravidiancooliealmostnakedandhecouldnothavebeendeadmanyminutes.Thepeoplesaidthattheelephanthadcomesuddenlyuponhimroundthecornerofthehutcaughthimwithitstrunkputitsfootonhisbackandgroundhimintotheearth...AssoonasIsawthedeadmanIsentanorderlytoafriendshousenearbytoborrowanelephantrifle.
  TheorderlycamebackinafewminuteswitharifleandfivecartridgesandmeanwhilesomeBurmanshadarrivedandtoldusthattheelephantwasinthepaddyfieldsbelowonlyafewhundredyardsaway.AsIstartedforwardpracticallythewholepopulationofthequarterflockedoutofthehousesandfollowedme.TheyhadseentherifleandwereallshoutingexcitedlythatIwasgoingtoshoottheelephant.Theyhadnotshownmuchinterestintheelephantwhenhewasmerelyravagingtheirhomesbutitwasdifferentnowthathewasgoingtobeshot.ItwasabitoffuntothemasitwouldbetoanEnglishcrowdbesidestheywantedthemeat.Itmademevaguelyuneasy.IhadnointentionofshootingtheelephantIhadmerelysentfortherifletodefendmyselfifnecessarywanditisalwaysunnervingtohaveacrowdfollowingyou.Imarcheddownthehilllookingandfeelingafoolwiththerifleovermyshoulderandanevergrowingarmyofpeoplejostlingatmyheels.Atthebottomtheelephantwasstandingeightyardsfromtheroadhisleftsidetowardsus.Hetooknottheslightestnoticeofthecrowdsapproach.Hewastearingupbunchesofgrassbeatingthemagainsthiskneestocleanthemandstuffingthemintohismouth.
  Ihadhaltedontheroad.AssoonasIsawtheelephantIknewwithperfectcertaintythatIoughtnottoshoothim.Itisaseriousmattertoshootaworkingelephantitiscomparabletodestroyingahugeandcostlypieceofmachinerymandobviouslyoneoughtnottodoitifitcanpossiblybeavoided.Andatthatdistancepeacefullyeatingtheelephantlookednomoredangerousthanacow.IthoughtthenandIthinknowthathisattackof&quotmust&quotwasalreadypassingoffinwhichcasehewouldmerelywanderharmlesslyaboutuntilthemahoutcamebackandcaughthim.MoreoverIdidnotintheleastwanttoshoothim.IdecidedthatIwouldwatchhimforalittlewhiletomakesurethathedidnotturnsavageagainandthengohome.
  ButatthatmomentIglancedroundatthecrowdthathadfollowedme.Itwasanimmensecrowdtwothousandattheleastandgrowingeveryminute.Itblockedtheroadforalongdistanceoneitherside.Ilookedattheseaofyellowfacesabovethegarishclothes—facesallhappyandexcitedoverthisbitoffunallcertainthattheelephantwasgoingtobeshot.Theywerewatchingmeastheywouldwatchaconjurorabouttoperformatrick.TheydidnotlikemebutwiththemagicalrifleinmyhandsIwasmomentarilyworthwatching.AndsuddenlyIrealizedthatIshouldhavetoshoottheelephantafterall.ThepeopleexpecteditofmeandIhadgottodoitIcouldfeeltheirtwothousandwillspressingmeforwardirresistibly.AnditwasatthismomentasIstoodtherewiththerifleinmyhandsthatIfirstgraspedthehollownessthefutilityofthewhitemansdominionintheEast.HerewasIthewhitemanwithhisgunstandinginfrontoftheunarmednativecrowd—seeminglytheleadingactorofthepiecebutinrealityIwasonlyanabsurdpuppetpushedtoandfrobytheMilofthoseyellowfacesbehind.Iperceivedinthismomentthatwhenthewhitemanturnstyrantitishisownfreedomthathedestroys.Hebecomesasortofhollowposingdummytheconventionalizedfigureofasahib.Foritistheconditionofhisrulethatheshallspendhistireintryingtoimpressthe&quotnatives&quotandsoineverycrisishehasgottodowhatthe&quotnatives&quotexpectofhim.Hewearsamaskandhisfacegrowstofitit.Ihadgottoshoottheelephant.Ihadcommittedmyselftodoingitwhen1sentfortherifle.Asahibhasgottoactlikeasahibhehasgottoappearresolutetoknowhisownmindanddodefinitethings.Tocomeallthatwayrifleinhandwithtwothousandpeoplemarchingatmyheelsandthentotrailfeeblyawayhavingdonenothing—nothatwasimpossible.Thecrowdwouldlaughatme.AndmywholelifeeverywhitemanslifeintheEastwasonelongstrugglenottobelaughedat.
  ItwasperfectlycleartomewhatIoughttodo.Ioughttowalkuptowithinsaytwentyfiveyardsoftheelephantandtesthisbehavior.IfhechargedIcouldshootifhetooknonoticeofmeitwouldbesafetoleavehimuntilthemahoutcameback.Butalso1knewthatIwasgoingtodonosuchthing.Iwasapoorshotwitharifleandthegroundwassoftmudintowhichonewouldsinkateverystep.IftheelephantchargedandImissedhimIshouldhaveaboutasmuchchanceasatoadunderasteamroller.ButeventhenIwasnotthinkingparticularlyofmyownskinonlyofthewatchfulyellowfacesbehind.ForatthatmomentwiththecrowdwatchingmeIwasnotafraidintheordinarysenseasIwouldhavebeenillhadbeenalone.Awhitemanmustntbefrightenedinfrontof&quotnatives&quotandsoingeneralheisntfrightened.ThesolethoughtinmymindwasthatifanythingwentwrongthosetwothousandBurmanswouldseemepursuedcaughttrampledonandreducedtoagrinningcorpselikethatIndianupthehill.Andifthathappeneditwasquiteprobablethatsomeofthemwouldlaugh.Thatwouldneverdo.Therewasonlyonealternative.Ishovedthecartridgesintothemagazineandlaydownonthereadtogetabetteraim.
  Afterwardsofcoursetherewereendlessdiscussionsabouttheshootingoftheelephant.TheownerwasfuriousbuthewasonlyanIndianandcoulddonothing.BesideslegallyIhaddonetherightthingforamadelephanthastobekilledlikeamaddogifitsownerfailstocontrolit.AmongtheEuropeansopinionwasdivided.TheoldermensaidIwasrighttheyoungermensaiditwasadamnshametoshootanelephantforkillingacooliebecausetheelephantwasworthmorethananydamnCoringheecoolie.AndafterwardsIwasverygladthatthecooliehadbeenkilleditputmelegallyintherightanditgavemesufficientpretextforshootingtheelephant.IoftenwonderedwhetheranyoftheothersgraspedthatIhaddoneitsolelytoavoidlookingafool.
1.Howdidthewritergetinvolvedintheincidentintheverybeginning?
2.whatdidthewriterlearnorrealizefromthisstory?
IIIReadLesson6TextB“UnwillingtoSchool”Judgewhetherthefollowingstatementsaretrueorfalse.
(阅读教材第6课课文B,判断对错)
UnwillinglytoSchool
ByKatrinFitzHerbert
  Everychildwithapoorschoolattendancerecordisachildindanger.Atbestheisindangerofnotfulfillinghiseducationalpotentialatworstheisindangerofcrueltyorneglect.
  Enforcedschoolabsenceinchildhoodissometimesusedbyadultstojustifytheirowncareerfailure.Itisdifficultforachildtoplaytruantregularlyifhisparentsarekeenforhimtoattendschool.Muchtruancyisopenlycondonedasfortherestnotknowingthatyourchildrenplaytruantisequivalenttonotensuringthattheyareatschool.Itshowslackofinterestintheirwhereaboutsapathyabouttheireducationorinabilitytocontrolthem—i.e.ineffectiveparents...
  Thecharacteristicswhichleadfamiliestorejectregularschoolingarelikelytohaveotherdetrimentaleffectsonthechildrenbesideseducationalfailure.Forwhatcouldmakeparentsdecidethatthemostwidelyagreedroutetosecureemploymentsocialacceptanceandpersonalsatisfactionisnotforthem?Thefirstreasonisageneraldifficultyindealingwithfamilyresponsibilitiesparticularlyinthestressfulenvironmentofmoderncities.Gettingthechildtoschoolontimeistoomuchtocopewith(alarmclockbreakfastclothesshoesgymclotheslunchmoney).Secondlythechildscompanymaycomfortadepressedisolatedmother.
  Theschoolsinsistenceonuniformsorotherobligationsandpossiblyitsundisguiseddisapprovalofan&quotinadequate&quotfamilymaybethelaststraw.Childrenwhogrowupinsuchfamiliesarelikelytobedeprivedinmanywaysbesideseducation.
  Inthesefamilieseducationiswrittenoffasawasteoftime.Forachildgrowingupthisispossiblymoreseriousthanthelossofeducation.Habitualnonattendancecanaccustomchildrenveryearlyintheirlivestorejectingthevaluesandlegalrequirementsofsociety.Itisatrainingindevianceandantisocialbehaviourwhichcanlaythefoundationforagenerallydeviantcareer.Thecommonprogressionfromtruancyorparentallycondonedabsencetojuvenilecrimehasbeenreliablyestablished.
  Ingreatestdangerofallisthechildwhosuccessfullyplaystruantforlongperiodswithouthisparentsknowledge.Hispersonalisolationandalienationnotjustfromconventionalbehaviourbutfromhisownfamilyputshimindangerofdelinquencydrugsormentalillnessinlaterlife.Truancyhasbeencalledthe&quotkindergartenofcrime&quotandbadschoolattendancespellsfailureandpossibleunemploymentinlaterlife.
  Itwassoonrealizedthatnonattendancewastoocomplexandseriousaproblemtobedealtwithbyeducationdepartmentsalone.Muchresponsibilityforschoolattendancewasthereforetransferredtosocialworkers.Thismovehasonitsownhoweverpossiblycreatedasmanyproblemsasithassolved.Thisisbecausetheseriousnesswithwhichtheyregardnonattendanceisanissueonwhichsocialworkersandworkersineducationdiffer.Socialworkerstendtoregarditasmerelyonesymptomofsocialfailurewhichparticularlyifhomelessnessphysicalneglectmaritalproblemsandillnessarepresentdoesnotjustifymoreattentionthantherest.
  Workersineducationconsidertheotherproblemsasallthemorereasonwhythechildrenconcernedshouldhavetheadvantageofregularschooling.Thelongertheystaytruantthegreateraretheirchancesofgettingintofurthertrouble.Onechiefeducationwelfareofficertoldme&quotThebestformofsocialserviceyoucandofordeprivedchildrenistoseethattheyreceiveeducationinthenormalschoolsetting.&quot
  Iwasgivenaccesstoafewcasesofnineyearoldchildrenselectedbytheirheadteacherforcausingconcernduetoproblemsarisingoutsideschool.Ireadtheirfilesandtalkedtotheworkersinvolvedabouthoweachfromhisprofessionalpointofviewsawthechainofeventssincetheinitialreferral.Incasesconcernedwithschoolabsencethismethodproducedacommentaryoftheslowprogressiontowardsstalematewhichcanoccurwhentwodepartmentswithdifferentprioritiesarejointlyresponsibleforsolvingthesameproblem.Forhowcanadecisiveplanforactioneverbeformedifitdependsonthecooperationoftwopeoplewhobasicallydisagree?
  Nonattendancecansoinjureachildslifechancesthatitdeservestobetackledbyamoresinglemindedattackthanthis.Aconcertedpolicyshouldfocusonthefollowingareasfirsttheschoolsowncapacityforholdingtheinterestofpupilsseconditsefficiencyinregisteringunexplainedabsencesthirdschoolorientedsocialworkfourthboardingschoolsandfifthpublicattitude.
  Thegeneralclimateofaschoolisobviouslyapowerfulfactorinachildsdecisiontoplaytruantsocreatinganacceptableschoolatmosphereisoneofthemostchallengingassignmentsteachersface.Itmusthoweverbedistinguishedfromtheseparatetaskofsettingupefficientmachineryforfollowingupsuspectedtruants.Thisconsistsoftreatinganyunexplainedabsence—evenlatenesswhichisoftenanindicationofabsencetocomeasserious.Iftheschoolimmediatelyqueriesthefirstandsubsequentunexplainedabsenceitwillbemuchmoredifficultforthechildtobecomeahabitualabsentee.
  Theschoolssuccessinkeepingnonattendancetoaminimumalsodependsontheeffectivenessofitseducationwelfareofficertheofficiallinkbetweenschoolandhome.Ideallywhenalertedaboutasuspectedabsencehemakesanimmediatehomevisittoseewhathasgonewrong.Inthefirstinstancehemaysimplygoto&quotcollectexcuses&quotgraduallyforminghisownideaoftherealreasonforthechildsabsencethechildisbulliedatschoolthemotherisunhappywhenthechildisatschoolthefamilydoesnotgetupintimetheparentsdontknowaboutthetruancythechildhasnotgotauniformandsoon.Thoughtheofficerwilldowhathecantoalleviateanyproblemhestumblesonhismaininterestistogetthechildbacktoschool.
  Anotheringredientofageneralattackonchronicnonattendanceshouldbeboardingeducation.EveryEducationWelfareOfficerhashiscoreofcasesofchildrenwhoseparentsdonotbelieveineducationwhohavesuchpsychologicalproblemsoftheirownthattheyneedtheirchildrenforcompanyorwhoaresoantiauthoritythattheywillnothandtheirchildrenovertoanyrepresentativesofthe&quotestablishment&quottheydetest.Thesearetheparentswithwhomtheofficerandtheschoolorsocialworkersgetnowhereandwhosechildrengetnoeducationtospeakofifleftintheirhomeenvironment.
  Teacherseducationwelfareofficersandsocialworkersaresometimesexcessivelyreluctanttoconsiderboardingschool.Theyregarditasapunitiveactionwithacertainfinalityforthechild.Manyreferralsarethereforemadetoolatetobereallyuseful.Sendingachildtoaboardingschoolshouldbetoimproveasituationwhichisnotgoingwell.Howevereverybodyissowaryofitthatwetendtouseitwhenitisreallytoolatewhenparentsarereadytoberelievedofachildwhoisaproblem—thusgivingthechildgoodreasontofeelrejected.Whenthechildisstillwantedandsenttoboardingschoolagainsthisparentswillthenitcanreallysolvetheproblembyansweringthechildseducationalneedswithoutdestroyingfamilybonds.
  Finallythepublicapathytowardstruancyisapositiveincentivetochildrenwhohavedifficultiesatschool.Themaninthestreetevenwhenknockedsidewaysbyadiminutivefootballerduringschoolhoursmerelycursesandwalkson.Wouldabsenceratesbeanydifferentifthepublicoccasionally&quothadago&quotatobviousnonattendersandencouragedthemtogivetheirteachersanotherchancetomakeschoolworthwhileforthem?
1.Everychildwithpoorschoolattendancerecordisunabletofulfillhiseducationalpotentialandisgoingtosuffercrueltyorneglect.
2.Manyparentsdonotknowthattheirchildrenplaytruantregularlywhichshowstheirlackofinterestintheirchildren’seducationorinabilitytocontrolthem.
3.Parent’sdifficultyindealingwithfamilyresponsibilityisnotareasonwhichleadsfamiliestorejectregularschooling.
4.Habitualnonattendancecancausechildrenrejectthevaluesandlegalrequirementsofsocietyveryearlyintheirlives.
5.Truancyorparentallycondonedabsencemayormaynotleadtojuvenilecrime.
6.Mentalillnessinlaterlifeisanotherbadeffectoftruancy.
7.Nonattendanceissuchacomplexandseriousproblemthatitcan’tbedealtwithbyeducationdepartmentalone.
8.Accordingtothispassagethesocialworkersandeducationaldepartmentdidn’tcooperateverywellbecausetheydisagreebasically.
9.Accordingtothewriterregisteringunexplainedabsenceisnotveryeffectivetoresolveregularnonattendance.
10.Unliketheparentstheteacherssocialworkersandeducationwelfareofficersareunwillingtosendtruantstoboardingschoolintheearlystage.
     答案卷
I,Translation
II,Answerquestions
1.
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III判断对错
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